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INTKODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                   29
still greater differences between these organs, when taken from
different flowers.   And however carefully we investigate the
anatomy of a plant, we.never fail to find similar deviations
from ideal rcgxdarity prevailing; for even the number of ovules
(when more than two) varies in the different cells of one ova-
rium, as do the number of ovaria in flowers that bear several*.
As regards variations in the floral organs, these are apparently
more, likely to occur, the less the individual parts deviate from
the normal typo (the leaf), of which they are modifications;
us if the more complete adaptation to a special fimetion ren-
dered them less liable to casual variation.    We find, for in-
stance, that the Carpels of Ranunculaceous plants vajy much in
shape, while those of Umbellifera and Composite are almost
constant j and that the sepals of Rosa and Paonia present re-
markable variations of form, while those of Dianthns and
Kalimchoe, which are united into a tube, retain their form,
with scarcely any modification, in each spccicsf.
2. Variation bdtoe&i different individuals of the same species.
Tliis is a more fertile source of spurious species than that last
treated of, and, in our opinion, the neglect of its effects has
mainly contributed to such a multiplication of species in the
vegetable kingdom,' as botanists unfamiliar with large herbaria
and exotic plants are slow to believe; au'd to the exaggerated
estimates of the supposed known extent of the vegetable cre-
ation that gain common credence. We feel safe in saying
* It is hawlly ncmsary to aliudo to the desirability of studying tlio various
form* induced by artificial causes: the browsing of c«ttle on shrubs, for in-
Htaiiec, which is almost invbrably followed by Ben abnormal state of foliage on
tlio subsequently developed shoots, lias been a prolific soumi of bad species;
while there b eoiitcoly an operation 01 man that does not tend to produce cliange
iti the vegetation suiTOitnding him.
f The sbnpo of floral leaves and bracts is, in general, much loss constant than
Hint of the perianth. It w iutiK>rt;m<> (o boar this in mind in many fmnilies of
phuitrf. \Vc could cs^ciftlly notice, «* a>x instance, Co^if^^ in which the
miiles olf llio oono nws wry geitamUy rciitxl an «s aUbrdmg specific diameters,
(f botanist* who have tin opportxuuty \vouid examine OIK! leoord the degree of
mna(io<» which oocmv in tho *\\n\iv of tlio ^idi^ of the <x^nc€ of tlio iudirkhutl
<m*is in UH> (n<li»ti ^ixx-H^ of Phuv ciipiH'Sttlly Mf? Wcbbianti, mtd
wotdd l*e